Hyderabad,July,7:Telangana with it’s own distinctive culture and identity termed as Deccani or Dakkini culture, with 90% people speaking the Telangana dialect of Telugu and the rest Urdu language, is a land locked area primarily situated in the central stretch of the eastwards seaboard of the Peninsular part of India.
With an area of 114,800 square kilometres (44,300 sq mi), it is the biggest of the three regions of Andhra Pardesh. It has almost two thirds of the catchment area of the two major rivers of Andhra Pradesh Krishna (69%) and Godavari (79%). The other minor rivers are Bhima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manair, Manjeera, Munneru, Moosi, Peddavagu, Penganga, Praanahita, and Taliperu.
It boasts of 45 % of the total forests of Andhra Pradesh and 20% of the coalmines besides large quantities of limestone, bauxite and mica as well. Still it is the most backward region of the state with 9 of a total of 13 most backward districts of the state. Thus all districts except 1 (Hyderabad) are backward.
Historically, Telangana formed the Telugu speaking regions of the territories under the Nizam of Hyderabad.
The Marathi and Kannad speaking people formed the other two major groups & regions. Towards the end of the British rule, the Communist Party of India had launched a massive, long drawn and valiant struggle against the oppression of the well equipped zamindars and Razzakars. After the sacrifice of more than 4000 unarmed or primitively armed peasants and their family members including women and children, and untold sufferings, were successful in “liberating” around 3000 of the 4000 villages and 41,000 Sq KMs of land before Nehru sent the army.
The Communists had done this under the banner of Andhra Mahasabha and formed communes in the victorious villages reminiscent of soviet Mirs to administer the region with assistance and protection of the guerillas constituted from the local peasants population. Approximately 10,000 acres of agricultural land were distributed amongst the landless farmers.
After the police action, these communes were disbanded and by 1951 the last of the guerillas were subdued by administration controlled by Union government. Subsequently, Congress won the provincial elections and ruled this Hyderabad state till 1956 when it was merged with the Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
Meanwhile, after the police action “officials were brought from the coastal districts of Andhra state or districts under Madras Presidency for “administrative convenience” against whose “condescending attitude”, the Mulki movement was commenced by the people which was “suppressed” by the authorities. This movement is said to be the genesis of the demand for a separate Telangana state.